# Excel Functions

## ABS

The ABS function in Excel is used to return the absolute value of a number. It disregards the negative or positive sign and converts the number to its positive equivalent. This function is handy for situations where only the magnitude of the value matters, irrespective of its sign.

## ACCRINT

The ACCRINT function is used to calculate the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest. This function is commonly used in financial analysis and accounting to calculate interest earned on bonds, notes, or other fixed income investments.

## ACCRINTM

The ACCRINTM function is used to calculate the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity. It is particularly useful for analyzing and managing fixed income investments, such as zero-coupon bonds or Treasury bills, where interest is paid at the time of maturity rather than periodically.

## ACOS

The ACOS function returns the arccosine, or inverse cosine, of a number. It is useful for finding the angle whose cosine is the specified number, especially in trigonometry and geometry.

## ACOSH

The ACOSH function is used to calculate the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. It is commonly used in mathematical and statistical calculations to find the hyperbolic arc cosine of a given value.

## ACOT

The ACOT function returns the arccotangent, or the inverse cotangent, of a number. It is useful for calculating angles or determining the phase shift in trigonometric and wave analysis.

## ACOTH

The ACOTH function returns the inverse hyperbolic cotangent of a number. It is useful for performing calculations in trigonometry, statistics, and other mathematical analyses.

The ADDRESS function in Excel is used to create a cell address as text, based on specified row and column numbers. This function is particularly useful when you need to dynamically refer to a specific cell in a formula or a macro.

## AGGREGATE

The AGGREGATE function is a powerful tool used for performing various calculations on ranges of data. It offers a wide range of pre-defined functions to apply to the data, and it also provides the option to ignore hidden rows or error values within the range.

## AMORDEGRC

The AMORDEGRC function is used to calculate the prorated depreciation of an asset for a specified accounting period using the coefficient method. This function is commonly used in accounting and financial analysis to determine the depreciation expense on assets over time.

## AMORLINC

The AMORLINC function in Excel is used to calculate the prorated depreciation for an asset for a specific accounting period using the linear depreciation method.

## AND

The AND function is used to check if all arguments evaluate to TRUE. It returns TRUE if all arguments are TRUE, otherwise it returns FALSE. This function is commonly used to test multiple conditions at once in Excel formulas and logical operations.

## ARABIC

The ARABIC function is used to convert a Roman numeral to an Arabic (decimal) number. It can be handy for converting historical or traditional numerical notations to modern decimal equivalents.

## AREAS

The AREAS function in Excel is used to count the number of areas in a reference. It is commonly used in conjunction with other functions and formulas to calculate the total number of non-contiguous ranges in a selected reference or range.

## ARRAYTOTEXT

The ARRAYTOTEXT function is used to convert an array of values into a delimited text string, which can be useful for creating human-readable summaries or reports from array data.

## ASC

The ASC function in Excel is used to return the ASCII value of a character. This function is handy when you need to find the ASCII code of a specific character, which can be useful in programming, data manipulation, and text processing tasks.

## ASIN

The ASIN function returns the arcsine (inverse sine) of a number. It is useful for calculating angles or ratios involving trigonometric operations, particularly in mathematics and engineering applications.

## ASINH

The ASINH function is used to calculate the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. This function is essential in trigonometry and mathematical calculations involving hyperbolic functions.

## ATAN

The ATAN function returns the arctangent, or inverse tangent, of a number. It is commonly used in trigonometry and geometry to calculate angles based on the tangent of a right-angled triangle's sides.

## ATAN2

The ATAN2 function returns the arctangent of the specified x- and y-coordinates, representing the angle in radians between the positive x-axis and the point (x, y) in the Cartesian plane.

## ATANH

The ATANH function returns the hyperbolic arctangent of a number. It is useful in scenarios involving mathematical calculations, especially in areas like engineering, physics, and advanced mathematical modeling.

## AVEDEV

The AVEDEV function in Excel calculates the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their average value. This function is useful for analyzing the variability or dispersion of a dataset, providing insights into the data's consistency or inconsistency.

## AVERAGE

The AVERAGE function is used to calculate the average of a set of values in Excel. This function is commonly utilized in data analysis and reporting to determine the central tendency of a dataset.

## AVERAGEA

The AVERAGEA function calculates the average of a set of values, including numbers, text, logical values (TRUE or FALSE), and empty cells. It considers all non-blank cells in the specified range, including cells containing text or logical values.

## AVERAGEIF

The AVERAGEIF function calculates the average of a range of cells that meet a specified condition. It is commonly used to find the average of values in a range based on a given criterion or condition.

## AVERAGEIFS

The AVERAGEIFS function calculates the average of a range of values based on multiple criteria. It allows you to specify one or more sets of criteria and determine the average of cells that meet all of the specified conditions.

## BAHTTEXT

The BAHTTEXT function is used to convert a number into Thai text representation, specifically in the baht currency format. This function is particularly useful for financial documents or applications that require amounts to be displayed in Thai Baht words.

## BASE

The BASE function converts a number to a text representation in a specified base (radix), incorporating the characters 0-9 and A-Z (up to base 36). It provides a means to represent numbers in non-decimal bases, such as binary, octal, or hexadecimal.

## BESSELI

The BESSELI function in Excel calculates the modified Bessel function I(n, x) which is often used in statistical analysis, engineering, and physics to solve differential equations and model various physical phenomena.

## BESSELJ

The BESSELJ function calculates the Bessel function Jn(x), which is used in various mathematical, engineering, and physical applications to describe oscillating phenomena such as waves, vibrations, and diffraction patterns.

## BESSELK

The BESSELK function in Excel is used to calculate the modified Bessel function of the second kind, which is a mathematical function commonly encountered in various areas of science and engineering, such as signal processing, heat conduction, and vibration analysis.

## BESSELY

The BESSELY function returns the Y Bessel function of the second kind for a given complex number.

## BETA.DIST

The BETA.DIST function is used to calculate the probability density function or cumulative distribution function for a beta distribution. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to model uncertainty and risk in various fields such as finance, engineering, and social sciences.

## BETA.INV

The BETA.INV function is used to calculate the inverse of the cumulative beta distribution for a specified probability.

The BETADIST function is used to calculate the beta cumulative distribution function (CDF) at a specified value in a range from 0 to 1. It is commonly used in statistical analysis and risk assessment to model the uncertainty or variability of data points within a given range.

## BETAINV

The BETAINV function is used to determine the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function. This function is commonly utilized in statistical analysis, particularly for estimating the threshold or inverse value for a given beta distribution probability.

## BIN2DEC

The BIN2DEC function is used to convert a binary number to its decimal equivalent. This function is extremely useful for handling binary numbers and performing conversions in Excel.

## BIN2HEX

The BIN2HEX function converts a binary number to its hexadecimal equivalent. This function is useful when working with binary data and need to represent it in a hexadecimal format.

## BIN2OCT

The BIN2OCT function converts a binary number to an octal number in Excel. It is useful when working with binary numbers and needing to represent them in the octal numeral system.

## BINOM.DIST

The BINOM.DIST function is used to calculate the probability of a certain number of successes in a fixed number of independent trials, where the probability of success is constant.

## BINOM.DIST.RANGE

The BINOM.DIST.RANGE function is used to calculate the probability of a certain number of successful events occurring within a specified range of trials in a binomial distribution. This function is particularly useful in statistical analysis and decision-making scenarios.

## BINOM.INV

The BINOM.INV function calculates the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a specified criteria. This function is commonly used in statistical analysis and probability calculations to determine the probability of a certain number of successful trials in a fixed number of trials.

## BINOMDIST

The BINOMDIST function calculates the probability of a certain number of successes in a fixed number of trials, where each trial has the same probability of success.

## BITAND

The BITAND function is used to perform a bitwise AND operation on two numbers, bit by bit.

## BITLSHIFT

The BITLSHIFT function is used to shift the bits of a specified number to the left (toward the most significant bit) by a specified number of positions. This function is commonly used in computer science and programming to manipulate binary representations of numbers.

## BITOR

The BITOR function is used to perform a bitwise OR operation between two numbers in Excel. This function is commonly used in computer programming and digital logic design to manipulate and compare binary data.

## BITRSHIFT

The BITRSHIFT function is used to perform a bitwise right shift operation on a specified number, shifting its binary representation to the right by a specified number of bits.

## BITXOR

The BITXOR function performs a bitwise XOR (exclusive OR) operation on two numbers or sets of binary digits. This function is useful for manipulating binary data or performing bitwise operations in Excel.

## CALL

The CALL function in Excel is used to execute a dynamic array formula or array of defined names and return the result.

## CEILING

The CEILING function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple of a specified significance. It is commonly used in financial modeling, data analysis, and various mathematical computations to ensure values align with specific criteria or constraints.

## CEILING.MATH

The CEILING.MATH function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple of a specified significance. This function is useful for scenarios where you need to round numbers up to a specific multiple, such as for pricing calculations or quantity constraints.

## CEILING.PRECISE

The CEILING.PRECISE function rounds a number up to the nearest specified multiple, ensuring a precise upward rounding for positive numbers, i.e., it always rounds away from zero.

## CELL

The CELL function is used to retrieve information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell in Excel. It is a versatile function that provides valuable insights into the characteristics of specific cells within a worksheet.

## CHAR

The CHAR function is used to return the character specified by a number. This function is commonly used to manipulate and display text in Excel.

## CHIDIST

The CHIDIST function calculates the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution (χ2) given a value and the degrees of freedom.

## CHIINV

The CHIINV function is used to calculate the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. This function is commonly used in statistical analysis to determine critical values associated with the chi-squared distribution.

## CHISQ.DIST

The CHISQ.DIST function calculates the probability of a chi-squared distribution, which is commonly used in statistical analysis to assess the likelihood of observed data differing from expected data. This function is helpful in various scientific and research scenarios for hypothesis testing and model fitting.

## CHISQ.DIST.RT

The CHISQ.DIST.RT function calculates the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution, which is commonly used in statistical analysis. This function is useful for determining the likelihood of observing a certain chi-squared value or higher in a chi-squared distribution.

## CHISQ.INV

The CHISQ.INV function calculates the inverse of the chi-squared cumulative distribution function (CDF). It is useful in statistical analysis for finding the value at which the chi-squared distribution has a specified probability.

## CHISQ.INV.RT

The CHISQ.INV.RT function returns the inverse of the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. It is used in statistics to find critical values for the chi-squared distribution.

## CHISQ.TEST

The CHISQ.TEST function is used to calculate the significance of the chi-squared statistic. This is commonly used in statistical analysis to determine the probability that the observed data fits a specified distribution.

## CHITEST

The CHITEST function is used to perform the chi-squared test of independence in Excel. This statistical function is commonly utilized in data analysis and research to assess the association between two categorical variables, helping determine if there is a significant relationship between them.

## CHOOSE

The CHOOSE function allows you to select and return a value from a list of values based on a specified index number. It is particularly useful when you want to retrieve a specific value from a list based on a given position or index.

## CLEAN

The CLEAN function in Excel is used to remove non-printable characters from a text string. It comes in handy when dealing with text data that may contain non-printable characters, such as extra spaces, line breaks, or other non-visible characters.

## CODE

The CODE function returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. This function is useful for extracting the numeric code of a specific character within a text string, particularly beneficial for tasks involving data manipulation and analysis.

## COLUMN

The COLUMN function in Excel is used to return the column number of a specified cell reference. It is useful for obtaining the column number for a given cell, which can be particularly handy when creating dynamic formulas or references within a worksheet.

## COLUMNS

The COLUMNS function returns the number of columns in a reference or array in Excel. It is useful for calculating the width or size of a range of data, particularly in scenarios where dynamic referencing or array manipulation is involved.

## COMBIN

The COMBIN function is used to calculate the number of combinations for a given number of items selected from a set without considering the order. It is commonly used in statistics, probability, and combinatorics to calculate combinations of elements in a set.

## COMBINA

The COMBINA function calculates the number of combinations with repetitions for a specified number of items. It is useful in situations where you want to determine the number of ways to combine a set of items, allowing for duplicates.

## COMPLEX

The COMPLEX function is used to convert real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number in the standard a + bi or a + bj format. This function is useful for creating complex numbers for use in mathematical calculations or engineering applications.

## CONCAT

The CONCAT function is used to combine multiple strings or cell references into a single string. It is a convenient way to concatenate or join text in Excel without using elaborate formulas or operators.

## CONCATENATE

The CONCATENATE function in Excel is used to combine or join multiple strings or cell values into a single string. It is a simple yet powerful tool for merging text data and constructing customized content within a worksheet.

## CONFIDENCE

The CONFIDENCE function is used to calculate the confidence interval for a population mean, based on a sample.

## CONFIDENCE.NORM

The CONFIDENCE.NORM function is used to calculate the confidence interval for a population mean, assuming a normal distribution.

## CONFIDENCE.T

The CONFIDENCE.T function calculates the confidence interval for a Student's t-distribution. It is commonly used in statistics to estimate the range within which the true population parameter is likely to fall.

## CONVERT

The CONVERT function is used to convert a measurement from one unit to another within the same measurement system. It is particularly useful in engineering, science, and other fields where unit conversions are common.

## CORREL

The CORREL function is used to calculate the correlation coefficient between two sets of data in Excel. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to measure the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables.

## COS

The COS function in Excel is used to calculate the cosine of an angle provided in radians. It is frequently employed in mathematical and trigonometric calculations, aiding in various modeling and analysis tasks within spreadsheets.

## COSH

The COSH function returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. It is useful for calculations involving exponential growth or decay in various fields such as mathematics, physics, engineering, and finance.

## COT

The COT function in Excel is used to return the cotangent of an angle, given in radians.

## COTH

The COTH function returns the hyperbolic cotangent of an angle. It is useful in trigonometric calculations and can be utilized in various mathematical and engineering scenarios.

## COUNT

The COUNT function is used to count the number of cells in a range that contain numbers.

## COUNTA

The COUNTA function is used to count the number of non-empty cells within a specified range. It is frequently used in Excel to determine the total count of cells containing any type of data or value, including text, numbers, errors, and logical values.

## COUNTBLANK

The COUNTBLANK function in Excel is used to count the number of empty cells within a specified range.

## COUNTIF

The COUNTIF function is used to count the number of cells within a range that meet specific criteria. It is a powerful tool for analyzing data and obtaining insights based on specified conditions.

## COUNTIFS

The COUNTIFS function is used to count the number of cells in a range that meet multiple criteria. It allows for flexible and precise data analysis by enabling the user to specify conditions for each criterion that must be met for a cell to be counted.

## COUPDAYBS

The COUPDAYBS function is used to calculate the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date for a security that pays periodic interest. This function is commonly used in financial analysis, particularly in bond valuation and investment scenarios.

## COUPDAYS

The COUPDAYS function calculates the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. It is commonly used in financial analysis and accounting to determine the fraction of the periodic interest payment.

## COUPDAYSNC

The COUPDAYSNC function is used to calculate the number of days in a coupon period falling within the settlement date and the next coupon date, using the actual number of days in each coupon period, without adjusting for leap years.

## COUPNCD

The COUPNCD function in Excel is used to calculate the next coupon date (the date when the next coupon payment is due) for a security that pays periodic interest. This function is commonly used in financial analysis and accounting to determine the upcoming coupon payment date for bonds, notes, or other fixed income investments.

## COUPNUM

The COUPNUM function in Excel is utilized to determine the number of coupons to be paid between the settlement date and the maturity date of a security that pays periodic interest. It is commonly employed in finance and accounting for calculating the number of interest payments to be received over a specific period.

## COUPPCD

The COUPPCD function is used to calculate the previous coupon date before the settlement date for a security that pays periodic interest. This function is commonly used in financial analysis and accounting to determine the last coupon payment date before the settlement date of a bond or other fixed income investment.

## COVAR

The COVAR function calculates the covariance between two sets of values. It is commonly used in statistics and financial analysis to measure the degree to which two variables move together.

## COVARIANCE.P

The COVARIANCE.P function calculates the population covariance between two sets of values. It is commonly used in statistics and data analysis to measure the relationship or degree of interdependence between two variables.

## COVARIANCE.S

The COVARIANCE.S function is used to calculate the sample covariance between two sets of data. It is commonly employed in statistics and data analysis to measure the degree to which two variables change together. This function is particularly useful in assessing the relationship between two investment assets, economic variables, or experimental results.

## CRITBINOM

The CRITBINOM function calculates the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a specified criteria. It is commonly used in statistical analysis and decision-making processes to determine the probability of a certain number of successes in a fixed number of trials.

## CSC

The CSC function returns the cosecant of an angle specified in radians. In trigonometry, the cosecant is the reciprocal of the sine function, and it represents the ratio of the hypotenuse to the opposite side of a right-angled triangle.

## CSCH

The CSCH function returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a number. It is a mathematical function used to calculate the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle in Excel.

## CUBEKPIMEMBER

The CUBEKPIMEMBER function is used to retrieve a key performance indicator (KPI) from a cube in an OLAP database. This function is particularly useful for business intelligence and data analysis purposes, allowing users to access specific KPIs stored in multi-dimensional databases.

## CUBEMEMBER

The CUBEMEMBER function is used to retrieve a member or tuple from a cube in an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) database. It is commonly used in Excel for analyzing multidimensional data and creating interactive reports for business intelligence and data analysis purposes.

## CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY

The CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY function retrieves a specified property of a member in a cube. This function is useful when working with multidimensional data analysis and OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) cubes in Excel.

## CUBERANKEDMEMBER

The CUBERANKEDMEMBER function is used in Excel for OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) data sources to rank members in a specified set based on a given measure.

## CUBESET

The CUBESET function is used in Excel to create a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on an external Analysis Services server.

## CUBESETCOUNT

The CUBESETCOUNT function is used to count the number of items in a set within a cube. This function is part of Excel's suite of Cube functions, which are utilized in multidimensional analysis and reporting for data stored in OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) cubes.

## CUBEVALUE

The CUBEVALUE function retrieves data from a cube, which is a set of data arranged and summarized into a multidimensional structure. It is primarily used in Excel in conjunction with OLAP (Online Analytical Processing) cubes to extract specific data points based on specified criteria.

## CUMIPMT

The CUMIPMT function in Excel is used to calculate the cumulative interest paid between two specified periods for a loan or investment. This function is handy for analyzing the interest components of payment schedules and understanding the cost of borrowing or investing over time.

## CUMPRINC

The CUMPRINC function calculates the principal portion of a loan payment made during a specific period. It helps in analyzing the distribution of loan payments between principal and interest over the course of a loan term.

## DATE

The DATE function in Excel is used to create a date by specifying the year, month, and day. It is helpful when you need to work with dates in Excel and want to construct a date value from individual components.

## DATEDIF

The DATEDIF function calculates the difference between two dates in days, months, or years. It is a hidden function in Excel that is useful for determining the duration between two dates in various date units.

## DATEVALUE

The DATEVALUE function in Excel is used to convert a date that is stored as text to a serial number representing the date in Excel's date-time code. This is useful when working with dates in text format and needing to perform date calculations or analysis.

## DAVERAGE

The DAVERAGE function is used to calculate the average of values in a database that meet specific criteria. This function is handy when dealing with large datasets and wanting to extract average values based on certain conditions or filters.

## DAY

The DAY function is used to extract the day value from a date in Excel. It returns the day of the month (a number from 1 to 31) corresponding to a specific date.

## DAYS

The DAYS function calculates the number of days between two dates in Excel. It is a simple yet essential function for determining the duration between specific points in time.

## DAYS360

The DAYS360 function calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year with twelve 30-day months. This function is commonly used in financial calculations where a simplified day count convention is used.

## DB

The DB function calculates the depreciation of an asset for a specific period using the fixed-declining balance method. This method assumes that the asset loses value at a constant rate each period, which is a commonly used approach for accounting purposes.

## DBCS

The DBCS function is used to determine if a given text string contains double-byte characters (characters that require two bytes to represent, commonly used in languages such as Japanese, Chinese, and Korean). It returns TRUE if the text string contains any double-byte characters and FALSE if not.

## DCOUNT

The DCOUNT function is used to count the number of cells in a database that meet specific criteria. It is particularly useful in filtering and extracting data from large datasets in Excel.

## DCOUNTA

The DCOUNTA function is used to count non-blank cells in a database or a list based on specified criteria. It is handy for situations where you need to determine the number of records that meet certain conditions within a dataset.

## DDB

The DDB function is used to calculate the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the double-declining balance method. It is commonly employed in accounting and financial analysis to track the decrease in value of assets over time.

## DEC2BIN

The DEC2BIN function converts a decimal number into a binary number. It is useful for converting decimal numbers to binary format for various applications.

## DEC2HEX

The DEC2HEX function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent.

## DEC2OCT

The DEC2OCT function converts a decimal number to octal representation in Excel.

## DECIMAL

The DECIMAL function is used in Excel to convert a text representation of a number in a specific base to its decimal equivalent.

## DEGREES

The DEGREES function converts radians to degrees. It is useful when working with trigonometry or geometry calculations.

## DELTA

The DELTA function is used to test whether two values are equal. It returns 1 if the values are equal, and 0 if they are not equal. This function is handy for comparing two values and performing conditional logic based on the result.

## DEVSQ

The DEVSQ function in Excel is used to calculate the sum of squares of deviations from the mean of a data set. It is commonly utilized in statistical analysis to measure variability or dispersion within a set of values.

## DGET

The DGET function is used to extract a single value from a database based on a specific criteria. It is handy when you need to retrieve a specific piece of information from a database that meets certain conditions.

## DISC

The DISC function in Excel is used to calculate the discount rate for a security. It is commonly utilized in financial analysis to determine the rate at which an investment is discounted relative to its face value or purchase price.

## DMAX

The DMAX function is used to find the maximum value in a database or list that meets specified criteria. It is handy for performing data analysis and filtering within Excel databases.

## DMIN

The DMIN function is used to return the smallest value in a database, based on specified criteria. It is handy for extracting the minimum value from a range of records that meet specific conditions within a database in Excel.

## DOLLAR

The DOLLAR function converts a number to text using the currency format, with the appropriate currency symbol and commas where necessary. This function is useful for displaying numeric data in financial reports or invoices in a clear and readable format.

## DOLLARDE

The DOLLARDE function is used to convert a dollar price value expressed as a fraction into a decimal number in Excel. This function is commonly used in financial modeling and calculations involving monetary values.

## DOLLARFR

The DOLLARFR function is used to convert a dollar price expressed as a decimal number into a fraction representation. This function is handy when dealing with financial calculations that require fractional representations of dollar prices.

## DPRODUCT

The DPRODUCT function is used to multiply values in a database that match specific criteria. It is handy for extracting and calculating products based on criteria defined in a database.

## DSTDEV

The DSTDEV function in Excel is used to calculate the standard deviation of a population based on a sample. It is particularly useful in statistical analysis for estimating the variability or dispersion of data points within a given dataset.

## DSTDEVP

The DSTDEVP function calculates the standard deviation of an entire population, provided the data set is from a sample taken from a population with a normal distribution.

## DSUM

DSUM is a powerful Excel function used for calculating the sum of a range of cells in a database that meets specific criteria. It is particularly handy for analyzing large sets of data in a structured manner.

## DURATION

The DURATION function calculates the Macaulay duration of a security, which provides a measure of the weighted average time it takes for an investment to recover its price through the received cash flows, including periodic interest payments and the repayment of principal.

## DVAR

The DVAR function calculates the variance of a population based on a sample, using a specific field and criteria.

## DVARP

The DVARP function is used to calculate the population variance of a database using a specified field column and criteria.

## EDATE

The EDATE function adds or subtracts a specified number of months to a given date, returning the resulting date. This function is useful for calculating future or past dates relative to a given date.

## EFFECT

The EFFECT function calculates the annual effective interest rate based on a nominal interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year. It is commonly used in financial calculations to determine the actual interest rate earned or paid on an investment or loan.

## ENCODEURL

The ENCODEURL function in Excel is used to encode a text string so that it can be used as a valid URL parameter. This function is helpful when working with web-related data and creating dynamic hyperlinks or URLs within Excel spreadsheets.

## EOMONTH

The EOMONTH function is used to calculate the end date of a month a specified number of months before or after a given date. This function is particularly useful in financial modeling, project planning, and date-related calculations.

## ERF

The ERF function calculates the error function, a mathematical function that describes the probability of an event occurring within a certain range in statistics and probability theory. It is commonly used in the field of mathematics, engineering, and statistical analysis.

## ERF.PRECISE

ERF.PRECISE is an Excel function that returns the error function integrated between the limits of 0 and x. It is part of the statistical functions in Excel and is useful for various mathematical and statistical calculations.

## ERFC

The ERFC function is used to calculate the complementary error function of a given value. It is commonly used in statistics, engineering, and mathematical modeling to analyze and calculate probability distributions, signal processing, and more.

## ERFC.PRECISE

The ERFC.PRECISE function calculates the complementary error function of a number, which represents the integral of the Gaussian distribution from x to infinity.

## ERROR.TYPE

The ERROR.TYPE function is used to return a number corresponding to the error value of a cell.

## EUROCONVERT

The EUROCONVERT function converts a currency amount from one European currency to another based on the specified exchange rates.

## EVEN

The EVEN function rounds a number up to the nearest even integer. It is helpful when you need to manipulate numbers for even-number increments or calculations.

## EXACT

The EXACT function in Excel is used to compare two text strings for exact equality. It returns TRUE if the strings are identical, including letter case, and FALSE if they are different.

## EXP

The EXP function returns the mathematical constant e raised to the power of a given number. In simpler terms, it calculates the exponential value of a specified exponent.

## EXPON.DIST

The EXPON.DIST function calculates the probability density or the cumulative distribution function for an exponential distribution. This function is commonly used in statistics and probability theory to model the time between events that occur continuously and independently at a constant average rate.

## EXPONDIST

The EXPONDIST function calculates the exponential distribution for a given value of x, with a specified parameter lambda that represents the rate of the exponential distribution. This function is commonly used in statistical analysis to model the time between independent events occurring at a constant average rate.

## F.DIST

The F.DIST function returns the cumulative probability of a specific F-statistic in a data set, using the F-distribution.

## F.DIST.RT

The F.DIST.RT function calculates the right-tailed F probability distribution. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to determine the probability that a random variable falls within a specified range of values.

## F.INV

The F.INV function calculates the inverse of the F probability distribution. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to find the value at which the cumulative distribution function of an F-distribution equals a specified probability.

## F.INV.RT

The F.INV.RT function is used to calculate the inverse of the F probability distribution. It provides the value at which an F-distribution cumulative probability is met.

## F.TEST

The F.TEST function is used to return the result of an F-test. It is commonly employed in statistical analysis to compare the variances of two data sets.

## FACT

The FACT function calculates the factorial of a number, which is the product of all positive integers up to and including that number. This function is commonly used in mathematics and statistics to calculate permutations and combinations.

## FACTDOUBLE

The FACTDOUBLE function returns the double factorial of a number, which is the product of every second number up to the given number.

## FALSE

The FALSE function in Excel returns the logical value 'FALSE', indicating a condition of falsity or a negative outcome.

## FDIST

The FDIST function in Excel is used to calculate the two-tailed F probability density function. It is commonly employed in statistical analysis to determine the probability of a specific F-statistic occurring in a F-test.

## FILTER

The FILTER function allows you to extract specific data from a range based on given criteria, returning only the rows that meet the specified conditions. This function is handy when you need to filter out relevant information from a larger dataset without altering the original data.

## FILTERXML

The FILTERXML function is used to extract specific data from XML content in Excel. It allows you to parse and filter XML data to retrieve desired information, making it easier to work with XML files and data within Excel spreadsheets.

## FIND

The FIND function is used to locate the position of a substring within a text string. It returns the starting position of the substring within the main text, allowing for easy extraction and manipulation of text data.

## FINDB

The FINDB function is used to find the starting position of a specified substring within a text string. This function is handy for locating specific text within a larger body of text.

## FINV

The FINV function calculates the left-tailed F probability distribution. It returns the probability that the observed F statistic is less than or equal to the actual value.

## FISHER

The FISHER function in Excel is used to calculate the Fisher transformation of a given value.

## FISHERINV

The FISHERINV function in Excel is used to calculate the inverse Fisher transformation on a given value. This function is commonly applied in statistical analyses, particularly when working with correlation coefficients or other transformed data.

## FIXED

The FIXED function is used in Excel to format a number as text with a fixed number of decimal places. It is handy when you want to display numbers in a specific format, such as currency amounts or percentages.

## FLOOR

The FLOOR function returns a number rounded down to the nearest multiple of significance. It is commonly used in scenarios where you need to truncate numbers to specific intervals or multiples for calculations or formatting purposes.

## FLOOR.MATH

The FLOOR.MATH function rounds a number down, towards zero, to the nearest multiple of a specified significance.

## FLOOR.PRECISE

The FLOOR.PRECISE function is used to round numbers down to the nearest specified multiple, ensuring that the result is always less than or equal to the original number. It is particularly handy for scenarios requiring precise downward rounding in calculations.

## FORECAST

The FORECAST function is used to predict a future value based on existing values. It is commonly utilized in financial modeling and data analysis to estimate trends and make forecasts.

## FORECAST.ETS

The FORECAST.ETS function is used to predict a future value or trend based on existing data points. This function is particularly helpful in forecasting trends, patterns, or future values in time series data, such as sales figures, stock prices, or weather patterns.

## FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT

The FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT function in Excel is used to calculate the confidence interval for a forecasted value based on a time series. It provides an estimate of the range within which the actual value is likely to fall, considering the volatility and uncertainty of the data.

## FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY

The FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY function is utilized to estimate the seasonality of a time series data set. This function is particularly useful in forecasting models where identifying and accounting for seasonal patterns is crucial for accurate predictions.

## FORECAST.ETS.STAT

The FORECAST.ETS.STAT function is used in Excel to predict a future value based on a series of existing values. This function is particularly useful in forecasting trends in data sets and making informed projections for various scenarios.

## FORECAST.LINEAR

The FORECAST.LINEAR function predicts a future value along a linear trend based on existing values. It is commonly used in data analysis and forecasting to estimate trends and make projections.

## FORMULATEXT

The FORMULATEXT function returns the formula in a cell as text, allowing you to display or refer to the formula itself within another cell.

## FREQUENCY

The FREQUENCY function is used to calculate the frequency distribution of data points in a set of values. This function helps in analyzing data distribution and identifying patterns or outliers within a dataset.

## FTEST

The FTEST function is used to return the result of an F-test, which is a statistical test that compares the variances of two arrays of data. This function is commonly used in statistical analysis to determine if two sample variances are significantly different from each other.

## FV

The FV function calculates the future value of an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate. It is commonly used in financial planning and analysis to determine the future worth of investments or savings over time.

## FVSCHEDULE

The FVSCHEDULE function is used to calculate the future value of an initial principal amount after applying a series of compound interest rates over multiple periods.

## GAMMA

The GAMMA function calculates the gamma function of a given value. In mathematical terms, the gamma function is an extension of the factorial function for non-integer values.

## GAMMA.DIST

The GAMMA.DIST function calculates the gamma distribution probability for a given value in Excel. This function is commonly used in statistics and probability analysis to model continuous random variables.

## GAMMA.INV

The GAMMA.INV function calculates the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution function (CDF) for a specified probability.

The GAMMADIST function is used to calculate the gamma distribution probability for a given value. It is commonly applied in statistical analysis to model continuous random variables with positive skewness.

## GAMMAINV

The GAMMAINV function calculates the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution function for a specified probability and input parameters. This function is commonly used in statistics and probability analysis to determine the input value corresponding to a given probability in a gamma distribution.

## GAMMALN

The GAMMALN function returns the natural logarithm of the absolute value of the gamma function for a given numeric value. This function is commonly used in statistical analysis and mathematical calculations.

## GAMMALN.PRECISE

The GAMMALN.PRECISE function calculates the natural logarithm of the absolute value of the gamma function for a given number.

## GAUSS

The GAUSS function in Excel is used to return the normal distribution of a specified value.

## GCD

The GCD function in Excel is used to find the greatest common divisor of two or more integers. It is handy for simplifying fractions, determining aspect ratios, or solving various mathematical problems that involve integer divisions.

## GEOMEAN

The GEOMEAN function calculates the geometric mean of a set of numbers. It is particularly useful in situations where you need to find the average growth rate of values over time.

## GESTEP

The GESTEP function is used to check if a number is greater than or equal to a threshold value. It returns 1 if the number is greater than or equal to the threshold, and 0 if it is less than the threshold.

## GETPIVOTDATA

The GETPIVOTDATA function extracts data stored in a pivot table in Excel based on specific criteria. It assists in retrieving summarized information from a pivot table without the need to manually reference cells within the table.

## GROWTH

The GROWTH function is used to predict exponential growth based on existing data points. It calculates the predicted exponential growth rate of a given set of known y-values (dependent variable) against a set of known x-values (independent variable). This function is commonly used in statistical analysis, forecasting, and trend analysis.

## HARMEAN

The HARMEAN function calculates the harmonic mean of a set of values. It is particularly useful in situations where averaging rates or ratios is required, giving more weight to lower values in the dataset.

## HEX2BIN

The HEX2BIN function converts a hexadecimal number to a binary number. It's handy when working with different number systems and need conversions.

## HEX2DEC

The HEX2DEC function is used to convert a hexadecimal number to a decimal number in Excel. This function is handy when working with hexadecimal values in calculations or conversions.

## HEX2OCT

The HEX2OCT function in Excel is used to convert a hexadecimal number to its octal equivalent. This function comes in handy when dealing with conversions between different number systems, such as hexadecimal and octal.

## HLOOKUP

The HLOOKUP function is used to search for a value in the top row of a table or an array and return a value in the same column from a specified row. It is handy for looking up data in horizontal headers.

## HOUR

The HOUR function returns the hour component of a given time as a whole number between 0 and 23.

The HYPERLINK function creates a clickable hyperlink in a cell. It is used to direct users to a specific website, file, email address, or cell reference within the spreadsheet.

## HYPGEOM.DIST

The HYPGEOM.DIST function calculates the hypergeometric distribution in Excel. This function is useful in statistical analysis to determine the probability of a specific number of successes in a population sampled without replacement.

## HYPGEOMDIST

The HYPGEOMDIST function calculates the probability of a specified number of successes in a sample drawn from a finite population without replacement.

## IF

The IF function in Excel allows you to perform different actions based on a specified condition. It is commonly used for logical operations, where you want Excel to make a decision based on whether a certain criteria is met.

## IFERROR

The IFERROR function is used to handle errors in Excel formulas by replacing them with a specified value or expression. It helps prevent error messages from appearing in your calculations and provides a way to display custom outputs when errors occur.

## IFNA

The IFNA function allows you to replace #N/A errors in Excel with a specific value of your choice. This function comes in handy when dealing with formulas that may result in errors, such as when looking up values or performing calculations.

## IFS

The IFS function in Excel acts as a versatile tool for evaluating multiple conditions and returning a value based on the first condition that is met. It streamlines decision-making processes by allowing users to set up a series of logical tests with corresponding outcomes.

## IMABS

The IMABS function is used to return the absolute value (magnitude) of a complex number in the form of x + yi.

## IMAGINARY

The IMAGINARY function in Excel is used to return the imaginary coefficient of a complex number. It helps in extracting the imaginary part of a complex number.

## IMARGUMENT

The IMARGUMENT function is used in Excel to extract a specific argument from a complex number in its rectangular form. This function is especially handy when working with mathematical or engineering calculations involving complex numbers.

## IMCONJUGATE

The IMCONJUGATE function is used to return the complex conjugate of a given complex number. It is commonly used in mathematical and engineering calculations involving complex numbers to find the conjugate of a complex value.

## IMCOS

The IMCOS function in Excel returns the cosine of a complex number in the form of x + yi. This function is particularly useful when dealing with mathematical calculations involving complex numbers.

## IMCOSH

The IMCOSH function returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number in Excel. It is used to calculate the inverse hyperbolic cosecant function for complex values.

## IMCOT

The IMCOT function is used in Excel to return the cotangent of a complex number in the form of x + y*i.

## IMCSC

The IMCSC function is used to return the imaginary coefficient of a complex number in its sign-convention form (i * Im + Real), where 'Real' represents the real coefficient and 'Im' represents the imaginary coefficient.

## IMCSCH

IMCSCH function returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number in Excel.

## IMDIV

The IMDIV function in Excel is used to divide complex numbers. It takes two complex numbers as arguments and returns the result of dividing the first complex number by the second complex number.

## IMEXP

The IMEXP function in Excel is used to calculate the exponential of a complex number.

## IMLN

The IMLN function calculates the natural logarithm of the absolute value of a complex number. It is useful in mathematics and engineering applications where logarithmic calculations involving complex numbers are required.

## IMLOG10

The IMLOG10 function is used to calculate the base-10 logarithm of a complex number in Excel. It is particularly useful when working with complex numbers in mathematical and engineering calculations.

## IMLOG2

The IMLOG2 function calculates the base-2 logarithm of a complex number in Excel. This function is primarily used in mathematical computations involving complex numbers, providing a convenient way to determine the logarithm of a complex input.

## IMPOWER

The IMPOWER function in Excel is used to raise a number to the power of another number, allowing for exponential calculations within a spreadsheet.

## IMPRODUCT

The IMPRODUCT function is used to calculate the product of complex numbers in Excel. It multiplies multiple complex numbers and returns the result as a complex number.

## IMREAL

The IMREAL function in Excel returns the real component of a complex number. It is useful for working with complex numbers and performing calculations involving both real and imaginary components.

## IMSEC

The IMSEC function is used to format a value as an immutable security identifier according to the ISIN standard.

## IMSECH

The IMSECH function is used to calculate the hyperbolic secant of a complex number in Excel. This function is handy for performing calculations involving complex numbers in trigonometry, engineering, and other mathematical applications.

## IMSIN

The IMSIN function returns the sine of a complex number in the form x + yi. It is useful in trigonometry and mathematical calculations involving complex numbers.

## IMSINH

The IMSINH function returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number in the form x + yi in Excel. It is useful for calculating trigonometric hyperbolic functions in complex number calculations.

## IMSQRT

The IMSQRT function returns the square root of a complex number. Complex numbers are used in many scientific and engineering calculations.

## IMSUB

The IMSUB function is used in Excel to subtract complex numbers. It is especially handy when dealing with calculations involving imaginary numbers or complex arithmetic in engineering, physics, mathematics, and other fields.

## IMSUM

The IMSUM function is used to return the sum of complex numbers in the form of a + bi or a + bj.

## IMTAN

The IMTAN function returns the inverse tangent of a complex number in the form x + yi. This function is useful when working with complex numbers in Excel.

## INDEX

The INDEX function in Excel is used to return the value of a cell in a table or an array based on the row and column numbers specified. This function is handy for looking up values within a range of cells or an array.

## INDIRECT

The INDIRECT function is used to return the reference specified by a text string. It is commonly employed in Excel to dynamically reference cells or ranges based on the contents of another cell.

## INFO

The INFO function in Excel is used to retrieve information about the current operating environment or settings within Excel. It provides details such as file names, paths, versions, and more, which can be helpful for users seeking to understand their Excel environment better.

## INT

The INT function rounds a number down to the nearest integer, truncating the decimal part of the number.

## INTERCEPT

The INTERCEPT function calculates the point at which a given line intersects the y-axis based on a set of x and y values. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to find the y-value when x is set to 0 in a linear regression model.

## INTRATE

The INTRATE function is used to calculate the interest rate for a fully invested security.

## IPMT

The IPMT function calculates the interest portion of a loan payment for a specific period. It is commonly used in financial planning and analysis to determine the breakdown of loan payments between principal and interest.

## IRR

The IRR function calculates the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows. It is commonly used in finance to determine the annualized percentage return that an investor can expect to receive from an investment.

## ISBLANK

The ISBLANK function checks whether a specified cell is blank (empty) and returns TRUE if it is blank or FALSE if it contains any content.

## ISERR

The ISERR function is used in Excel to check if a value is an error other than #N/A. It returns TRUE if the value is any error other than #N/A, and FALSE if it is #N/A or not an error.

## ISERROR

The ISERROR function is used to check if a value is an error and returns TRUE if it is an error value, such as #VALUE!, #REF!, #DIV/0!, and FALSE if it is any other type of value.

## ISEVEN

The ISEVEN function in Excel is used to check if a number is even.

## ISFORMULA

The ISFORMULA function is used to check whether a cell contains a formula or a constant value. This function is handy for differentiating between cells that are manually entered data and cells that contain computed values.

## ISLOGICAL

The ISLOGICAL function in Excel is used to check if a value is a logical value (TRUE or FALSE). It returns TRUE if the value is a logical value and FALSE if it is not.

## ISNA

The ISNA function checks if a value is a #N/A error and returns TRUE if it is, otherwise returns FALSE. It is commonly used in Excel to handle error values and perform conditional checks based on error outputs.

## ISNONTEXT

The ISNONTEXT function checks whether a value is not text. It returns TRUE if the value is not a text string and FALSE if it is a text string.

## ISNUMBER

The ISNUMBER function is used to check if a value is a numeric value (number) or not. It returns TRUE if the value is a number and FALSE if it is not.

## ISO.CEILING

The ISO.CEILING function rounds a number up to the nearest integer or multiple of significance based on the ISO standard. This function is useful for financial calculations and compliance with certain international standards that require specific rounding rules.

## ISODD

The ISODD function in Excel is used to check if a given number is odd or not. It returns TRUE if the number is odd and FALSE if it is not.

## ISOWEEKNUM

The ISOWEEKNUM function returns the ISO week number of a specific date.

## ISPMT

The ISPMT function calculates the interest portion of a loan payment for a specific period based on a fixed interest rate.

## ISREF

The ISREF function is used to check if a value is a reference or not in Excel. This function returns TRUE if the value is a reference and FALSE if it is not.

## ISTEXT

The ISTEXT function is used to check if a value is a text string. It returns TRUE if the value is a text string; otherwise, it returns FALSE.

## JIS

The JIS function converts a text string from full-width (double-byte) characters to half-width (single-byte) characters in Japanese encoding. This function is useful for manipulating text in Japanese language that may contain mixed character types.

## KURT

The KURT function calculates the kurtosis of a data set, which measures the sharpness of the peak or the flatness of the tails of a distribution compared to a normal distribution. It helps in understanding the shape of the data distribution.

## LARGE

The LARGE function in Excel returns the nth largest value from a range of data. It is useful for quickly identifying the top values within a dataset or array.

## LCM

The LCM function in Excel is used to find the least common multiple of one or more integers. It is particularly helpful in scenarios where you need to determine the smallest integer that is a multiple of two or more numbers.

## LEFT

The LEFT function is used to extract a specified number of characters from the left side of a text string. This function is commonly used when you want to retrieve a portion of text from a larger string.

## LEFTB

Returns a specified number of bytes from the start of a text string in Excel. This function is useful when working with multibyte character sets or languages that may have characters represented by multiple bytes.

## LEN

The LEN function is used to count the number of characters in a text string. It is a simple yet powerful function that comes in handy when you need to quickly determine the length of a cell's content.

## LENB

The LENB function returns the number of bytes used to represent a text string. This is particularly useful when working with languages that utilize double-byte characters, such as Chinese, Japanese, or Korean.

## LINEST

The LINEST function in Excel is used to calculate statistics for a line that best fits a set of data points by minimizing the differences between the data and the regression line. It is commonly used for linear regression analysis in statistics and data analysis projects.

## LN

The LN function calculates the natural logarithm of a number. It is commonly used in mathematical and scientific calculations to determine the logarithm base e.

## LOG

The LOG function calculates the logarithm of a number to a specified base. It is commonly used in mathematical and scientific calculations to determine the power to which a given base must be raised to produce a specified number.

## LOG10

The LOG10 function calculates the base 10 logarithm of a number. It is useful for converting numbers into logarithmic form with a base of 10, commonly used in scientific and mathematical calculations.

## LOGEST

The LOGEST function is used to calculate an exponential curve that best fits your data points. This function is commonly used in statistics and data analysis to predict trends or make forecasts based on a set of known data points.

The LOGINV function calculates the inverse of the log-normal cumulative distribution function for a specified probability and parameters, useful in statistical analysis and modeling where log-normal distributions are prevalent.

## LOGNORM.DIST

The LOGNORM.DIST function calculates the probability density function or the cumulative distribution function for a lognormal distribution.

## LOGNORM.INV

The LOGNORM.INV function returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution for a specified mean and standard deviation.

## LOGNORMDIST

The LOGNORMDIST function calculates the probability density function of a log-normal distribution for a given value. It is useful in statistics and finance for modeling data that is skewed and follows a log-normal pattern.

## LOOKUP

The LOOKUP function is used to search for a value in a range or array and return a value that corresponds to the first match found. It is handy for quickly looking up values in a list.

## LOWER

The LOWER function converts text to lowercase in Excel. It is useful when you want to standardize text or make it more uniform for comparison purposes.

## MATCH

The MATCH function is used to search for a specified item in a range and return its relative position. It is commonly employed to find the position of a value within a list or array in Excel, facilitating data lookup and comparison tasks.

## MAX

The MAX function in Excel is used to find the largest numeric value in a range of cells or an array. It is commonly utilized to quickly identify the maximum value within a dataset, making it convenient for data analysis and comparisons.

## MAXA

The MAXA function returns the largest numeric value in a range of cells, including numbers, dates, times, errors, and text representations of numbers.

## MAXIFS

The MAXIFS function returns the maximum value from a range of cells that meets multiple criteria. This function is handy when you want to find the highest value in a dataset based on specified conditions.

## MDETERM

The MDETERM function calculates the matrix determinant of an array in Excel. This function is handy for performing linear algebra operations and analyzing data sets represented as matrices.

## MDURATION

The MDURATION function calculates the Macaulay duration of a security, which provides the weighted average time to receive the cash flows from the security, considering both the timing and amount of those flows. It is widely used in finance to measure the interest rate risk of a bond or other fixed-income security.

## MEDIAN

The MEDIAN function in Excel returns the median (middle) value in a set of numbers. It is useful for finding the middle data point in a dataset, making it ideal for statistical analysis and data processing tasks.

## MID

The MID function is used to extract a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at a specified position. It is handy for manipulating text data in Excel and extracting substrings from strings.

## MIDB

The MIDB function returns a specific number of characters from the middle of a text string, starting at a specified position. It is a versatile tool to extract substrings from larger text strings in Excel.

## MIN

The MIN function is used to find the smallest value in a set of values. It is commonly employed in Excel to quickly determine the minimum numerical value within a range of cells or an array.

## MINA

The MINA function returns the minimum numeric value from a set of supplied arguments. It is an essential tool for quickly finding the smallest number within a range or list of values in Excel.

## MINIFS

The MINIFS function returns the smallest numeric value in a range that meet multiple criteria.

## MINUTE

The MINUTE function returns the minute component of a specified time.

## MINVERSE

The MINVERSE function is used to calculate the multiplicative inverse (or matrix inverse) of a given square matrix in Excel. This function is handy for matrix algebra operations and is particularly useful in engineering, mathematics, and data analysis applications.

## MIRR

The MIRR function in Excel calculates the modified internal rate of return for a series of cash flows that may have different reinvestment and finance rates. It is a useful tool in financial analysis for evaluating investment returns under varying conditions.

## MMULT

The MMULT function in Excel is used to multiply two matrices and return the matrix product.

## MOD

The MOD function in Excel returns the remainder after a number is divided by a divisor. It is commonly used to calculate cyclic repetitions or identify patterns in data.

## MODE

The MODE function is used to find the most frequently occurring number in a range of values. It is handy when you want to identify the number that appears most often in a dataset.

## MODE.MULT

The MODE.MULT function in Excel calculates the multiple most frequently occurring values in a dataset. It is useful for finding more than one mode in a set of data, which can be beneficial for statistical analysis and identifying common occurrences.

## MODE.SNGL

The MODE.SNGL function in Excel returns the most frequently occurring number (mode) within a dataset. It is useful for identifying the value that appears most often in a range of numbers.

## MONTH

The MONTH function in Excel returns the month of a given date as an integer from 1 (January) to 12 (December). This function is useful for extracting and working with the month component of a date within Excel formulas.

## MROUND

The MROUND function is used to round a number to the nearest multiple specified by the user. This function is handy for situations where you need values to be adjusted to specific increments or multiples.

## MULTINOMIAL

The MULTINOMIAL function calculates the multinomial coefficient for a set of numbers you specify. It is useful in combinatorial mathematics to compute the number of ways to choose a sequence of items without regard to order.

## MUNIT

The MUNIT function returns a unit matrix of a specified size. A unit matrix is a square matrix where all elements are zero except for the diagonal elements, which are all one.

## N

The N function in Excel is used to check if a value is a number. It returns TRUE if the value is a number and FALSE if it is not.

## NA

The NA function returns the #N/A error value which stands for 'Not Available', indicating that the requested value is not available or cannot be found.

## NEGBINOM.DIST

The NEGBINOM.DIST function calculates the negative binomial distribution, which models the number of failures that occur before a specified number of successes in a sequence of independent and identically distributed Bernoulli trials.

## NEGBINOMDIST

The NEGBINOMDIST function calculates the probability of a specified number of failures before achieving a target number of successes, based on a negative binomial distribution. This function is commonly used in statistical analysis to model scenarios where success and failure outcomes occur repeatedly until a certain number of successes is reached.

## NETWORKDAYS

The NETWORKDAYS function is used to calculate the number of working days between two specified dates, excluding weekends and optionally, specified holidays. This function is handy for scheduling and project management tasks where you need to determine the number of business days.

## NETWORKDAYS.INTL

The NETWORKDAYS.INTL function calculates the number of workdays between two dates, considering specified weekend days and holidays. This function is useful for project management, tracking timelines, and managing work schedules efficiently.

## NOMINAL

The NOMINAL function converts an effective interest rate to a nominal interest rate. It is commonly used in financial calculations, especially when analyzing interest rates on loans or investments.

## NORM.DIST

The NORM.DIST function calculates the probability that a value falls within a given range in a normal distribution. It is commonly used in statistics and probability analysis to determine the likelihood of a specific outcome occurring based on a normal distribution of data.

## NORM.INV

The NORM.INV function calculates the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. It is commonly used in statistics and data analysis to find the value that corresponds to a specified probability in a standard normal distribution.

## NORM.S.DIST

The NORM.S.DIST function in Excel calculates the standard normal cumulative distribution function for a specified value. It is commonly used in statistical analysis and probability calculations to determine the probability of a value being less than or equal to a given standard normal random variable.

## NORM.S.INV

The NORM.S.INV function calculates the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution for a specified probability. It is commonly used in statistics and probability theory to find the value at which the standard normal distribution reaches a given probability.

## NORMDIST

The NORMDIST function calculates the cumulative probability of a normal distribution at a specific value or the probability density function of a normal distribution with a given mean and standard deviation.

## NORMINV

The NORMINV function calculates the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution for a specified probability. It is commonly used in statistics and finance to find the value for a given probability in a standard normal distribution.

## NORMSDIST

The NORMSDIST function calculates the standard normal cumulative distribution function for a specified value in Excel. This function is commonly used in statistical analysis to determine the probability that a value falls below a certain point in a standard normal distribution.

## NORMSINV

The NORMSINV function returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. In simpler terms, it calculates the Z-score (standard score) corresponding to a specified probability in a standard normal distribution.

## NOT

The NOT function in Excel is used to reverse the logical value of a given expression. It returns TRUE if the expression is FALSE and FALSE if the expression is TRUE.

## NOW

The NOW function returns the current date and time as a serial number.

## NPER

The NPER function calculates the number of periods for an investment or loan based on regular fixed payments and a constant interest rate. It is commonly used in financial planning and analysis to determine the term required to pay off a loan or reach a financial goal.

## NPV

The NPV function in Excel is utilized to calculate the net present value of an investment by discounting the series of cash flows at a specified rate of return. This function is commonly employed in financial analysis to assess the profitability of an investment or project.

## NUMBERVALUE

The NUMBERVALUE function is used to convert text representations of numbers into actual numeric values in Excel. It is particularly handy when data imported or entered as text needs to be converted to numerical format for mathematical calculations or analysis.

## OCT2BIN

The OCT2BIN function converts a number in octal (base 8) format to binary (base 2) format in Excel. It is particularly useful when working with octal numbers and needing to represent them in binary for various calculations or comparisons.

## OCT2DEC

The OCT2DEC function converts an octal number to a decimal number in Excel. This function is helpful when working with numbers in octal format and needing to convert them to decimal for calculations or analysis.

## OCT2HEX

The OCT2HEX function converts a number from octal (base 8) to hexadecimal (base 16) representation in Excel.

## ODD

The ODD function in Excel is used to round a number up to the nearest odd integer. This function is helpful when you need to work with odd numbers specifically, such as in certain mathematical calculations or for formatting purposes.

## ODDFPRICE

The ODDFPRICE function is used to calculate the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest at odd frequencies. It is particularly useful in financial analysis for valuing bonds with irregular payment schedules.

## ODDFYIELD

The ODDFYIELD function calculates the yield of a security that has an odd (irregular) first period.

## ODDLPRICE

The ODDLPRICE function calculates the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd (irregular) first period.

## ODDLYIELD

The ODDLYIELD function calculates the yield of a security with an odd first period, such as T-bills that have a short or long first coupon period.

## OFFSET

The OFFSET function in Excel is used to return a reference to a range that is a specified number of rows and columns from a starting reference point. This function is particularly useful for dynamic data analysis and creating flexible formulas.

## OR

The OR function is used to check if any of the specified conditions are TRUE. It returns TRUE if at least one condition is met, otherwise it returns FALSE.

## PDURATION

The PDURATION function calculates the duration of an investment with periodic payments based on a specified discount rate. This function is commonly used in financial analysis to determine the time it takes to recover the initial investment through periodic cash flows.

## PEARSON

The PEARSON function is used to calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient between two sets of values. It is commonly utilized in statistics and data analysis to determine the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables.

## PERCENTILE

The PERCENTILE function calculates the k-th percentile of a set of values. It is commonly used in data analysis and statistics to determine a specific value below which a certain percentage of data falls.

## PERCENTILE.EXC

The PERCENTILE.EXC function calculates the k-th percentile for a given data set, excluding logical values and text. This function is useful for determining the value below which a certain percentage of data points fall.

## PERCENTILE.INC

The PERCENTILE.INC function returns the kth percentile of values in a range, where k is a value between 0 and 1, inclusive.

## PERCENTRANK

The PERCENTRANK function calculates the relative position of a specified value in a data set as a percentage, indicating how the value compares to other values in the set.

## PERCENTRANK.EXC

The PERCENTRANK.EXC function calculates the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage, excluding 0 and 1 from the calculation. This function is commonly used in statistics to determine the relative standing of a value within a dataset.

## PERCENTRANK.INC

The PERCENTRANK.INC function calculates the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage.

## PERMUT

The PERMUT function calculates the number of permutations for a given number of objects in a set, considering a specific number of elements in each permutation. It is commonly used in combinatorial mathematics and statistical analysis to determine the number of possible arrangements.

## PERMUTATIONA

The PERMUTATIONA function calculates the number of permutations for a given number of objects taken from a set with repetitions.

## PHI

The PHI function in Excel returns the value of the Gaussian function (also known as the standard normal cumulative distribution function) for a specified value. This function is commonly used in statistics and probability calculations, particularly in analyzing data sets and determining probabilities in normal distributions.

## PHONETIC

The PHONETIC function converts a text string into the phonetic (sounds-like) equivalent in English, helping to pronounce difficult or unfamiliar words correctly.

## PI

The PI function returns the mathematical constant pi (π), which represents the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. It is a fundamental constant in mathematics and widely used in various calculations involving circles, spheres, trigonometry, and calculus.

## PMT

The PMT function is used to calculate the periodic payment for a loan or investment, based on constant payments and a constant interest rate. This function is commonly utilized in financial modeling to determine regular payments needed to repay a loan over a specified period.

## POISSON

The POISSON function calculates the Poisson distribution, which is a probability distribution that shows how many times an event is likely to occur within a specified interval of time or space. It is commonly used in statistics to model the number of events that occur in a fixed period of time.

## POISSON.DIST

The POISSON.DIST function calculates the Poisson probability mass function, which represents the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time or space if these events occur with a known constant mean rate and independently of the time since the last event.

## POWER

The POWER function raises a number to a specified power.

## PPMT

The PPMT function is used to calculate the principal payment for a specific period of a loan or investment with constant periodic payments and a fixed interest rate.

## PRICE

The PRICE function calculates the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest. It is commonly used in financial analysis and accounting to determine the price of bonds, notes, or other fixed income investments.

## PRICEDISC

The PRICEDISC function calculates the price of a discounted security, such as a treasury bill, that pays interest at maturity. This function is commonly used in financial analysis to determine the purchase price of short-term, discount-bearing instruments.

## PRICEMAT

The PRICEMAT function is used to calculate the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity. It is commonly utilized in financial analysis to determine the price of a security that does not pay periodic interest but instead accrues interest until maturity.

## PRODUCT

The PRODUCT function in Excel calculates the product of a given set of values. It multiplies all the numbers together and returns the result.

## PROPER

The PROPER function in Excel converts text to proper case by capitalizing the first letter of each word and converting the rest to lowercase. It is handy for standardizing and improving the presentation of text data.

## PV

The PV function calculates the present value of an investment or a loan based on a constant interest rate.

## QUARTILE

The QUARTILE function in Excel is utilized to determine the specific quartile (i.e., the 25th percentile, 50th percentile or median, or the 75th percentile) of a dataset. This function aids in statistical analysis by segmenting data into four equal parts.

## QUARTILE.EXC

The QUARTILE.EXC function is used to calculate the quartile of a dataset at a specified percentile. It is especially handy in statistics and data analysis for determining the values that divide a data set into four equal parts.

## QUARTILE.INC

QUARTILE.INC is an Excel function used to calculate quartiles (values that divide a data set into four equal parts) based on a given data set. It is particularly useful in statistics and data analysis to understand the distribution and spread of values within a dataset.

## QUOTIENT

The QUOTIENT function in Excel returns the integer portion of a division between two numbers, discarding any remainder. It is useful when you only need the whole number result of a division.

The RADIANS function converts angles from degrees to radians in Excel. It is commonly used in trigonometry and geometry calculations where trigonometric functions require angle inputs in radians.

## RAND

The RAND function generates a random decimal number between 0 and 1. It is commonly used in Excel to produce random values for simulations, spreadsheets, and statistical analysis.

## RANDARRAY

The RANDARRAY function generates an array of random numbers between 0 and 1. It's handy for creating datasets for simulation, testing, or simply to randomly populate cells in Excel.

## RANDBETWEEN

The RANDBETWEEN function is used to generate a random integer number between two specified values. It is commonly employed in Excel for scenarios requiring random selection or simulation, such as generating random test data or simulating outcomes.

## RANK

The RANK function in Excel is used to determine the rank of a specified value in a list of values. It is particularly handy for scenarios where you need to rank items based on their numerical or logical order.

## RANK.AVG

The RANK.AVG function assigns the rank of a specified value in a list of values, with tiebreakers handled by averaging the ranks.

## RANK.EQ

The RANK.EQ function assigns a rank to a specified value within a list of values, with equal values receiving the same rank. This function is often used in data analysis to determine the relative position of a value compared to others in a dataset.

## RATE

The RATE function calculates the interest rate per period of an annuity investment by solving for the rate in the formula used to calculate the present value of an annuity.

The RECEIVED function calculates the amount received at maturity for an investment, such as a bond, based on a discounted rate or yield.

## REGISTER.ID

The REGISTER.ID function is used to assign a unique sequential identification number to each unique value in a range. This function is handy for creating unique identifiers for data entries or managing databases efficiently.

## REPLACE

The REPLACE function is used to replace a specific number of characters in a text string, starting at a specified position.

## REPLACEB

The REPLACEB function is handy for replacing characters in a text string based on byte positions. It allows you to specify the starting byte position from where the replacement should begin and the number of bytes to replace.

## REPT

The REPT function repeats a text string a specified number of times. This function is handy for creating visual elements or formatting in Excel, such as adding separators, creating borders, or emphasizing text.

## RIGHT

The RIGHT function extracts a specified number of characters from the right side of a text string.

## RIGHTB

The RIGHTB function returns a specified number of bytes from the end of a text string. This function is particularly useful when working with multibyte character sets where characters may occupy multiple bytes, such as in languages like Chinese, Japanese, or Korean.

## ROMAN

The ROMAN function converts an Arabic numeral into a Roman numeral in Excel. It is helpful for displaying numbers in a traditional Roman numeral format, which can be useful for certain types of reports or presentations.

## ROUND

The ROUND function is used to round a number to a specified number of digits. It is commonly employed in financial modeling, data analysis, and mathematical calculations to simplify values and improve readability.

## ROUNDDOWN

The ROUNDDOWN function rounds a number down towards zero to a specified number of digits.

## ROUNDUP

The ROUNDUP function in Excel is used to round a number towards a specified number of digits away from zero. It rounds numbers up, away from zero, to the nearest specified number of digits.

## ROW

The ROW function returns the row number of a reference. It is handy for dynamic referencing and data manipulation in Excel.

## ROWS

The ROWS function in Excel is used to count the number of rows in a specified range or array. It is handy for quickly determining the total rows of a data set or range.

## RRI

The RRI function in Excel is used to calculate the internal rate of return for an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows. It is commonly utilized in financial modeling and analysis to assess the feasibility and profitability of investments.

## RSQ

The RSQ function in Excel is used to calculate the square of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. This function is commonly used in statistical analysis to measure the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two sets of data.

## RTD

The RTD function is used to retrieve real-time data from a program that supports COM automation. It is commonly used for dynamic data updates in Excel, such as stock prices, weather information, or other live data feeds.

## SEARCH

The SEARCH function is used to find the position of a substring within a text string. This function is commonly used to locate a specific character or word within a larger body of text.

## SEARCHB

The SEARCHB function is used to find the starting position of a substring within a text string, considering double-byte characters. This function is especially useful when working with languages that contain multi-byte characters, such as Asian languages.

## SEC

The SEC function in Excel is used to calculate the annual interest rate of a security based on its settlement date, maturity date, and price per \$100 face value.

## SECH

The SECH function returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle in radians. It is useful in mathematical calculations involving hyperbolic functions.

## SECOND

The SECOND function in Excel is used to extract the second component (seconds) of a given time value. It is particularly handy when you only need to work with the seconds part of a time value and want to isolate or manipulate it separately.

## SEQUENCE

The SEQUENCE function generates a sequence of numbers in an array, providing a convenient way to create a series of values with specified properties.

## SERIESSUM

The SERIESSUM function in Excel is used to return the sum of a power series based on the formula: a * power( x, 1 ) + b * power( x, 2 ) + ...

## SHEET

The SHEET function is used to return the sheet number of a referenced sheet in a workbook. This function is helpful for identifying the position of a specific sheet within the workbook for organizational and referencing purposes.

## SHEETS

The SHEETS function is used to count the number of sheets in a reference.

## SIGN

The SIGN function is used to determine the sign of a number. It returns 1 if the number is positive, -1 if the number is negative, and 0 if the number is zero.

## SIN

The SIN function returns the sine of an angle provided in radians. It is commonly used in trigonometry and geometry calculations.

## SINH

The SINH function calculates the hyperbolic sine of a given number. It is a mathematical function that is particularly useful in scenarios involving exponential growth or decay.

## SKEW

The SKEW function calculates the skewness of a distribution based on a sample of data. Skewness measures the asymmetry of the distribution in a dataset.

## SKEW.P

The SKEW.P function calculates the skewness of a dataset. Skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of the distribution of values in the dataset.

## SLN

The SLN function calculates the straight-line depreciation of an asset for a single period. It is commonly used in accounting and financial analysis to determine the consistent depreciation amount for each period of an asset's useful life.

## SQRT

The SQRT function returns the square root of a number.

## SQRTPI

The SQRTPI function calculates the square root of the product of a number and pi (π). It is a simple mathematical function in Excel that combines the square root and pi constants in a single operation.

## STANDARDIZE

The STANDARDIZE function is used to normalize a given value by adjusting it based on the mean and standard deviation of a distribution. This function is commonly used in statistics to standardize data points and compare them on a common scale.

## STDEV

The STDEV function calculates the standard deviation of a sample set of data. It is commonly used to measure the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of values from the mean.

## STDEV.P

The STDEV.P function calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population provided as arguments. It is used to measure the dispersion of values within a dataset and is widely utilized in statistical analysis to assess variability.

## STDEV.S

The STDEV.S function calculates the standard deviation for a sample set of data. It is commonly used in statistics to measure the amount of variation or dispersion in a set of values.

## STDEVA

The STDEVA function calculates the standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values, treating text and logical values as zero.

## STDEVP

The STDEVP function calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. It is used to measure the dispersion of a dataset relative to its mean, providing insights into the data's variability and distribution.

## STDEVPA

STDEVPA is an Excel function used to calculate the standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. It is applied when the data provided represents the entire population, including all elements within it.

## STEYX

The STEYX function calculates the standard error of the predicted y-values for each x in the regression of a dataset.

## STOCKHISTORY

The STOCKHISTORY function retrieves historical stock data, including opening price, high price, low price, closing price, and volume, for a specified stock or security symbol from an online source.

## SUBSTITUTE

The SUBSTITUTE function is used to replace occurrences of a specific substring within a text string with a new substring. It's handy for making text substitutions or modifications in Excel.

## SUM

The SUM function in Excel is used to add up a range of numbers or cells. It is one of the most commonly used functions for basic arithmetic calculations and totaling values in a spreadsheet.

## SUMIF

The SUMIF function in Excel is used to add up numbers in a range that meet specified criteria. It is commonly used to calculate totals based on specific conditions or criteria.

## SUMIFS

The SUMIFS function in Excel is used to sum values in a range that meet multiple criteria. It allows you to specify one or more criteria ranges and corresponding criteria to determine the cells to be added.

## SUMPRODUCT

The SUMPRODUCT function in Excel multiplies corresponding values in the given arrays or ranges and then sums the results. So the first value of the first array is multiplied with the first value of the second array. Then, the second values of the arrays are multiplied, etc. Finally, all multiplication results are summed. The resulting value is returned. It is commonly used for various calculations like weighted averages, total revenue calculations, and more.

## SUMSQ

The SUMSQ function calculates the sum of the squares of a set of numbers. This function is handy for quickly finding the total of squared values in Excel.

## SUMX2MY2

The SUMX2MY2 function in Excel is used to calculate the sum of squares of differences between corresponding arrays in two datasets. This function is helpful for analyzing the deviations between paired data points and is commonly used in statistical analysis and scientific research.

## SUMX2PY2

The SUMX2PY2 function calculates the sum of the squares of corresponding values from two arrays.

## SUMXMY2

The SUMXMY2 function calculates the sum of the squares of differences between corresponding values in two arrays. It is useful for determining the total squared differences between two sets of data points.

## TEXT

The TEXT function allows you to format a number and convert it to text, using a specified number format. This function is handy for customizing the appearance of numeric values in cells or creating dynamic text labels based on numerical data in Excel.

## TODAY

The TODAY function returns the current date in Excel. It is a dynamic function that automatically updates to display the current date whenever the Excel sheet is recalculated or opened.

## VLOOKUP

VLOOKUP is a powerful function in Excel used to search for a value in the first column of a range and return a value in the same row from another column. It stands for 'Vertical Lookup' and is commonly employed for tasks such as data analysis, searching, and referencing.