# COVARIANCE.S

The COVARIANCE.S function is used to calculate the sample covariance between two sets of data. It is commonly employed in statistics and data analysis to measure the degree to which two variables change together. This function is particularly useful in assessing the relationship between two investment assets, economic variables, or experimental results.

## Syntax

=COVARIANCE.S(`array1`

, `array2`

)

`array1` | The first array or range of data representing one set of values. |

`array2` | The second array or range of data representing the other set of values. |

## About COVARIANCE.S

When evaluating the interdependence of two data sets and seeking to quantify their co-movement, embrace the COVARIANCE.S function in Excel. It serves as a reliable tool for uncovering the extent to which two variables move in tandem, providing valuable insights into their relationship and enabling informed decision-making in diverse domains encompassing finance, economics, and scientific research. COVARIANCE.S facilitates the examination of how changes in one variable correspond to changes in another, fostering a deeper comprehension of their interconnected dynamics. By employing this function, you gain access to a powerful mechanism for analyzing the joint fluctuations of variables, facilitating the detection of patterns, trends, and associations within the data. You're equipped to discern the strength and direction of the relationship between the two datasets, empowering you to make sound interpretations and draw meaningful conclusions. The sample covariance derived from COVARIANCE.S serves as a pivotal metric in statistical inference, providing vital evidence of the degree to which the variables exhibit synchronous movements or exhibit inverse behavior. Armed with the insights afforded by COVARIANCE.S, you're empowered to make informed choices in investment diversification, risk assessment, economic modeling, and scientific investigations.

## Examples

Suppose you have two sets of data representing the monthly returns of two investment assets. You want to calculate the sample covariance between these sets. The COVARIANCE.S formula would be: =COVARIANCE.S(A2:A13, B2:B13) This would return the sample covariance of the monthly returns for the two assets over the specified period.

## Questions

**What does the sample covariance calculated by COVARIANCE.S indicate?**

The sample covariance computed by COVARIANCE.S offers insight into the direction and strength of the linear relationship between the two sets of data. A positive covariance indicates a direct relationship, while a negative covariance implies an inverse relationship. The magnitude of the covariance reflects the degree of co-movement between the variables.

**Is the COVARIANCE.S function suitable for analyzing non-linear relationships?**

No, the COVARIANCE.S function is designed to measure the linear association between two sets of data. It may not accurately capture non-linear relationships or dependencies between variables.

**Can the COVARIANCE.S function handle arrays or ranges of different lengths?**

Yes, the COVARIANCE.S function can accommodate arrays or ranges of different lengths. However, it will only consider the overlapping data points for the calculation of the sample covariance. Unequal lengths will not affect the functionality of the function.

## Related functions

COVARIANCE.P

CORREL

FORECAST.ETS