The CONCATENATE function in Excel is used to combine or join multiple strings or cell values into a single string. It is a simple yet powerful tool for merging text data and constructing customized content within a worksheet.


=CONCATENATE(text1, [text2], ...)

text1 The first text or cell reference to be concatenated.
[text2] Additional texts or cell references to be concatenated. You can include up to 255 arguments.
[...] Additional texts or cell references to be concatenated.
[text255] The last text or cell reference to be concatenated.


When you need to stitch together pieces of text or cell contents to create a unified textual output, the CONCATENATE function becomes your go-to ally in Excel. It facilitates the seamless combination of multiple strings or cell values, proving instrumental for tasks involving text manipulation, report generation, or crafting personalized messages within a workbook's cells, aiding in the transformation of disparate nuggets of information into cohesive narratives or data compilations. To harness the capabilities of CONCATENATE effectively, you simply provide the desired texts or cell references as arguments within the function, and it diligently forges them into a concatenated string, retaining the original content's essence within the consolidated output. This functionality extends to accommodating an extensive array of inputs, allowing you to merge up to 255 separate elements into a coherent conglomerate, reinforcing its status as a versatile tool for text amalgamation.


Suppose you have the first name 'John' in cell A1 and the last name 'Doe' in cell B1. To create a full name in cell C1, you would use the CONCATENATE formula as follows: =CONCATENATE(A1, " ", B1). This will result in the concatenated string 'John Doe'.

If you have numerical values in cells A2, B2, and C2, you can use the CONCATENATE function to combine them into a custom label. For example, =CONCATENATE("Item ", A2, "-", B2, " (", C2, " pcs)") will yield a concatenated string like 'Item 101-Red (15 pcs)'.


Can the CONCATENATE function join more than two cell values or texts?

Yes, the CONCATENATE function can join up to 255 individual cell values or texts into a single concatenated string.

How can I include spaces or punctuation in the concatenated output using the CONCATENATE function?

You can include spaces, punctuation, or any constant characters within the CONCATENATE function by enclosing them in double quotation marks. For example, to include a space between two concatenated cell values, use the formula: =CONCATENATE(A1, " ", B1).

What happens if one of the arguments in the CONCATENATE function is an empty cell?

If one of the arguments provided to the CONCATENATE function is an empty cell, it will be treated as an empty text string, and the function will proceed to concatenate the non-empty arguments as usual.

Related functions

& operator